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The Dordogne area hosts hundreds of Caves and Grottes formed in the calciferous cliffs and was home to Cro-Magnon Man - the first early modern humans who lived 20,000 to 40,000 years ago. The area is considered to be a cradle of European civilisation. Many of the caves are famous for Upper Paleolithic art with some paintings estimated to be 17,300 years old. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac is a great place to start and from there, the most famous at Lascaux can easily be reached.
Where there is limestone and dripping water, you usually find stalactites and stalagmites and Gouffre de Proumeyssac have fine examples in its 'Cathedral of Crystal'.